The PHYTOC League

The Peking-Harvard-Yale-Tsinghua-Oxford-Cambridge League

The University of Oxford
 - the oldest university in the English-speaking world,
 with evidence of teaching as far back as year 1096.
Peking University
 - the oldest university in the Chinese-speaking world,
found year 938 as the Nanjing Taixue of Liao Dynasty.

 

The PHYTOC League is a rivalry among the six most pretigious universities of the three world powers of different times. The rivalry includes University of Oxford and University of Cambridge from the United Kingdom, the then dominating power from the 19th to the 20th Century, Harvard University and Yale University from the United States of America, the dominating power of the 20th and the 21st Centry, and Peking University and Tsinghua University from th People's Republic of China, the expected World Power of the 21st and the 22nd Century. PHYTOC stands for the initials of the six universities, and the League evaluates the quality of higher education and research as an extension of the rivalry of the three superpowers.

 

Aim

The PHYTOC League aims to evaluate the quality of the top tier higher educational and research institutions of the U.K., the U.S.A., and the P.R.C. under the lens of a research and educational extension of the the rivalry of the three then, current, and expected superpowers. 

 

Methodology

The PHYTOC considers two of the most prestigious university evaluational systems, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE) and the QS World University Rankings (QS). Unlike the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), which solely establishes its figures upon research ability, the fact that THE and  QS systems demonstrate both educational and research factors of the universities make them the best university ranking systems to be adopted in this research, as the PHYTOC aims to evaluate both research and educational quality of the institutes. Being built upon the two systems, each year the PHYTOC League draws average scores for each of the six prestigious universities and ranks them in the PHYTOC table, from the first to the sixth. As the THE score and the QS score have an inequivalent weight, the PHYTOC League Rank only takes the two scores as reference in the PHYTOC Score, and when it comes to the ranking, the system's major considered factor, the PHYTOC Ranking Score, only refers to the ranks of the two systems.

 

Choice of Candidates

As the PHYTOC League intends to illustrate the comparison of the most representing and prestigious integrated higher educational and research institutions of the three then, current, and expected superpowers, the U.K., the U.S.A., and the P.R.C., the League sets a series of criterea in the selection of the candidates to be in the League. The criterea are:

1. The candidate has to be an integrated higher educational and research institute.

This is to ensure that the institute can reflect the top tier educational and research quality in different subjects of the nation.

2. The candidate has to have a student size of 12,000-35,000.

The number of student should be around 12,000-35,000 to ensure the candidates are representative and comparable with each other.

3. The candidate has to have a relatively long history when compared with other existing institutes in the country, and if not, it has to exist before the superpower was established.

This is to ensure the traditional representiveness of the institute in the nation.

The Oldest Integrated Higher Educational Institute of the Country: Oxford, Harvard, Peking

The Second Oldest Integrated Higher Educational Institute of the Country: Cambridge, Yale

Tsinghua is not the second oldest of the country but always the top two institutes in term of historical influence, and its establishment date (1911) is long before the establishment of the P.R.C. (1949).

4. The candidate must be the best performers of the nation in pretigious acadmic ranking systems.

This is to ensure the quality of the candidate tops the nation.

Top two of the Country excluding those institues that are not integrated, not large enough, or history not long enough are Oxbrige, Harvard-Yale, and Peking-Tsinghua.

Why not others?

Imperial College London, Caltech and MIT are ruled out as they are not integrated institutes. Stanford's history is not one of the longest, and established (1891) long after the establishment of the U.S.A. to be a representing institute of the country. Princeton is a possible eligible candidate if the student size is not smaller than Yale and the history  is not shorter than Yale to have Yale replaced it.

 

The Results

The Results are as follow:

 

PHYTOC Table 2014

  THE score THE Rank QS Score QS Rank PHYTOC Score PHYTOC Ranking Score PHYTOC League Rank
Peking University 65.2 48 78.8 57 72 52.5 6
Harvard University 93.3 2 99.3 4 96.3 3 1
Yale University 87.5 9 96.5 10 92 9.5 4
Tsinghua University 65.1 49 81.3 47 73.2 48 5
University of Oxford 93.2 3 99.2 5 96.2 4 3
University of Cambridge 92 5 99.4 2 95.7 3.5 2

 

PHYTOC Table 2013

  THE score THE Rank QS Score QS Rank PHYTOC Score PHYTOC Ranking Score PHYTOC League Rank
Peking University 65 45 80 46 72.5 45.5 5
Harvard University 93.9 2 99.2 2 96.55 2 1
Yale University 87.4 11 96.5 8 91.95 9.5 4
Tsinghua University 63.5 50 79.7 48 71.6 49 6
University of Oxford 93.9 2 98.7 6 96.3 4 2
University of Cambridge 92.3 7 99 3 95.65 5 3

 

PHYTOC Table 2012

  THE score THE Rank QS Score QS Rank PHYTOC Score PHYTOC Ranking Score PHYTOC League Rank
Peking University 70.7 46 78.75 44 74.725 45 5
Harvard University 93.6 4 99.15 3 96.375 3.5 =1
Yale University 89.2 11 97.48 7 93.34 9 4
Tsinghua University 67.1 52 77.51 48 72.305 50 6
University of Oxford 93.7 2 98.57 5 96.135 3.5 =1
University of Cambridge 92.6 7 99.78 2 96.19 4.5 3

 

PHYTOC Table (All Time)

  PHYTOC League Points (2012) PHYTOC League Points (2013) PHYTOC League Points (2014) PHYTOC League Points (All Time)
Peking University 5 5 6 16
Harvard University 1 1 1 3
Yale University 4 4 4 12
Tsinghua University 6 6 5 17
University of Oxford 1 2 3 6
University of Cambridge 3 3 2 8

 

PHYTOC Table of Superpowers (PTS)

Superpowers PHYTOC League Points (2012) PHYTOC League Points (2013) PHYTOC League Points (2014) PHYTOC League Points (All Time)
U.K. 4 5 5 14
U.S.A. 5 5 5 15
P.R.C. 11 11 11 33

 

Analysis

The tables illustrate that the perfomance of Harvard and Oxbridge outrides the other three. This indicates that the U.K. has an overall high quality of top higher education in the PHYTOC League while the U.S.A. has her best prestigious integrated higher educational institue in the world, Harvard University, representing her in the League. The U.S.A. is suggested to push the performance and reputation of other prestigious intergrated universities, apart from Harvard, in order to dominate the table of the best of the best. As for the P.R.C., the two representing institutes, Peking and Tsinghua, have been occupying the last two spots of the table, indicating a difference between this expected future superpower and the other two powers.

The PHYTOC Table of Superpowers (PTS) suggests that the top higher educational institutes in China has a long way to go to dominate the world as if how the 19th-20th Century Superpower, the U.K., and the 20th-21st Century Superpower, the U.S.A., are performing. China, in terms of the research and higher educational sector, is far from being called the superpower of the century. Unlike how many believe, there is no evidence showing that the gap between the top tier educational and research institutes of the P.R.C. and the two other powers has any tendency of being narrow in the past few years. As for the U.K., though it may not contain the hard power as solid as she had in the past to be a comparable superpower of the U.S.A. at the moment, the top tier higher educational and research sector of the U.K. is always comparable to, if not ahead of, the current leading superpower, the U.S.A..

Readers are reminded that the PHYTOC League reflects only the figures of the top tier integrated higher educational and research institutions. Application of the data beyond this limitation may or may not risk overinterpretation.

To summarize, the PHYTOC tables show that the U.K. and the U.S.A. remain the dominating worldpower in the top tier higher educaional and research sector, with the P.R.C. has a long way to go to be a comparable counterpart.

 

Reference

1. Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE):

http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings

2. QS World University Rankings (QS):

http://www.topuniversities.com/qs-world-university-rankings

3. Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU):

http://www.shanghairanking.com/

 

Author and Copyright

Andrew Lau

First published: 31-12-2014

Email Contact: dantarts@hotmail.com